Vitamin K – Pass the NCLEX on your First Time by Mastering this Drug

Master Vitamin K

Vitamins are essential for everybody’s health. So if you are an aspiring nurse, you definitely have to master these vital substances.

Now that you are about to take your NCLEX, remember that you need to be familiar with the common drugs, such as Vitamin K. Often found in NCLEX tests, you can memorize its important points by reading through the rest of this article. to get the Top Medications on NCLEX RN exam

Indications for Use

Also known as Phytomenadione, Vitamin K is a medication that works similar to the natural vitamin found in green leafy vegetables and fish. It is needed for the synthesis of clotting factors that prevent excessive bleeding.

Vitamin K is prescribed in patients who suffer from an overdose of oral anti-coagulants, such as Coumadin and Inandione. It is also used in individuals who suffer from hypoprothrombinemia resulting from the intake of oral antibiotics and Vitamin A.

Those with disorders resulting to the malabsorption and inadequacy of Vitamin K, such as ulcerative colitis and obstructive jaundice, are also treated with the said drug.

Vitamin K is also an essential medication for newborns, as it is used in the treatment of neonatal hemorrhagic disease.

Vitamin K FoodsNursing Considerations

As a nurse, you are responsible for monitoring the patient who will receive Vitamin K. You should take a comprehensive history, specifically noting if he has allergies. For female patients, establish if they are pregnant, planning to be pregnant or lactating, as it can cause jaundice and other conditions to the fetus/neonate.

Since Vitamin K helps in the synthesis of clotting factors, you should check the patient’s PT and INR tests every so often.

NCLEX Nursing Interventions

As it has been established, you should religiously monitor your patient’s PT/INR response. After all, the result will dictate the duration, frequency and dose of Vitamin K.

The effectiveness of the drug is evidenced by the following responses:

  • Shortened PT/INR, bleeding and clotting times
  • Decreased bleeding tendencies

Important NCLEX Teaching Points

When dealing with patients taking Vitamin K, it is vital to remind them to maintain a normal diet. Remind them to avoid increasing the intake of Vitamin K-rich foods (i.e. green leafy vegetables, fish, meat and eggs,) especially if the treatment regimen has already been stabilized.

It is also important to inform patients taking Vitamin K that they might develop temporary resistance to anticoagulants similar to Coumadin. Should this oral medication be needed, a larger dose – or heparin even – might be prescribed instead.

Vitamin K is an essential drug, commonly seen in many hospital floors. Boost your nursing knowledge and obtain that most-awaited license by going through the practice NCLEX questions here at

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Superb NCLEX Study Tips

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Ace the NCLEX:  Superb

NCLEX Study Tips

NCLEX study tips are the best way for nurses to study for NCLEX.  Congratulations! Your years of studying have finally paid off.  Graduating from Nursing school is just the start of your journey. Before you can practice your skills and live out your dream of becoming an efficient nurse, you first need to pass the National Council Licensure Examinations for Registered Nurses, also known as NCLEX-RN.  We provide NCLEX Study tips to help you pass the exam on your 1st try.

The NCLEX, which is administered in a computerized adaptive testing format, provides the aspiring nurse with 75 to 265 exam questions. Our NCLEX Study tips will help you pass the exam.  The test ends when the system determines the capacity of the exam taker (below or above standard.)

Of course, you want your results to be above standard, don’t you? So how do you go about with this make-or-break event in your life? Here are superb NCLEX Study tips that can help you ace your NCLEX in as little as 75 questions!

Get more NCLEX Study Tips in our mobile app

NCLEX Study tip 1.

Go over as many NCLEX study tips and questions as you possibly can. has a mobile application and website that provides study questions that will help you pass the NCLEX exam on the 1st try.

NCLEX Study tip 2.

Draft an effective study plan.  According to the article “6 tips on preparing for the NCLEX-RN exam” by Judy Draper, MSN and Alice Stein, RN, EdD, you should schedule your examination right away, while the information in your mind is still fresh. Once the schedule is put into place, you can calculate how many days you have left for reviewing.

Divide your study materials equally so that you can cover all the bases for the remaining days. Choose the best time where you can function well – is

NCLEX Study Tips
NCLEX Study Tips

it morning, or before sleeping?

Now that you have created a study schedule, make sure to stick with it. Go over your class notes, books and test reviewers as you have planned to. Devote additional study times to areas where you are weak at.

NCLEX Study tip 3.

Familiarize yourself with the test plan categories.

The practice of Nursing is broad; so it will help if you know the categories and types of questions that can appear in the NCLEX. Here is the breakdown of the topics you can expect from the exam:

  • Basic Care and Comfort
  • Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies
  • Reduction of Risk Potential
  • Physiological Adaptation
  • Management of Care
  • Safety and Infection Control
  • Psychosocial Adaptation
  • Coping and Adaptation
  • Prevention and Early Detection of Disease
  • Growth and Development Through the Lifespan

NCLEX Study tip 4.

Review for the exam with a study group.  You might find it hard to study on your own, especially if you have your TV and your laptop to distract you. In this case, you need to participate in a study group. Here, you can gain support and motivation from colleagues (God knows I got mine from my peer group!) You can even share your study materials and ask each other about possible NCLEX-RN questions, such as this one: Antepartum

A new mother has some questions about (PKU). Which of the following statements made by a nurse is not correct regarding PKU?

A: A Guthrie test can check the necessary lab values.
B: The urine has a high concentration of phenylpyruvic acid
C: Mental deficits are often present with PKU.
D: The effects of PKU are reversible.

5.  Be prepared on the test date itself.  Cramming will do you no good, especially the day before the exam. Sleep early so you can be well-rested on the exam date itself. Arrive at the test facility earlier than expected, especially if you are not familiar with the area. Be sure to have all the necessary documents with you – your test authorization form and two valid IDs.

Studying well is important for you to pass the NCLEX – and it is just as vital to be mentally prepared as well. With a well-stocked brain and a positive outlook in life, you can become the nurse you have always wanted to be! You can find other test questions and NCLEX study tips at

Do you have other study tips for NCLEX takers? Don’t hesitate to share them here!Join Our Private NCLEX Group


Author: Raychel Ria Agramon

Epogen Pointers: What You Need to Become an Excellent Nurse

Epogen Pointers for Excellent Nursing

Anemia is a condition characterized by the inadequacy of red blood cells, components that deliver oxygen to various parts of the body. This disorder is hallmarked by symptoms such as fatigue, dizziness, shortness of breath, tachycardia and pallor.

To cure this illness, doctors usually prescribe Epogen. As such, this medication is commonly found in the NCLEX.

Indications for Use

Generically known as Epoietin Alfa, Epogen is categorized as a recombinant human erythropoietin. It boosts the production of glycoproteins in the kidneys, which then increases the synthesis of red blood cells in the bone marrow.

Epogen is prescribed in patients with anemia related to the following:

  • Chronic renal failure, especially those on dialysis
  • Renal failure in ages 1-16 years old, requiring dialysis
  • Zidovudine therapy for HIV-AIDS
  • Chemotherapy

Apart from anemia treatment, Epogen is also used to reduce allogenic blood transfusions in patients undergoing surgery. Other indications included pruritus secondary to renal failure, myelodysplastic syndrome and chronic inflammation due to rheumatoid arthritis.

symptoms of anemiaNursing Considerations

Assessment is an integral part of Epogen therapy. As such, make sure to take the patient’s history and note for hypersensitivity to mammalian cell-derived products/human albumin, uncontrolled hypertension and lactation.

As for physical examination, obtain pertinent information such as the patient’s vital signs, affect, reflexes and urinary output prior to administration. Ensure that lab exams such as CBC, Hematocrit, Serum iron, electrolytes and renal function tests are extracted accordingly.

NCLEX Nursing Interventions

When preparing Epogen, remember to gently mix the solution. Do not shake the vial, as it might denature the glycoprotein. Additionally, use only one dose per vial and avoid re-entering it. Discard the vial after use, even if there is still something remaining in the container.

Avoid giving Epogen with any other drug or medication.

Epogen should be administered thrice weekly. Intravenous or subcutaneous are the preferred routes, though it can be given directly to the venous access line of dialysis patients. Prior and after administration, evaluate the access line for signs of clotting.

Make sure that the patient’s Hematocrit is checked prior to Epogen therapy. This will determine the accurate dosage for the client. Additionally, check the patient’s serum iron to evaluate if supplemental iron is needed.

Remember to place patients receiving Epogen on seizure precaution, as it can occur with the drug.

Important NCLEX Teaching Points

As Epogen needs to be given three times a week, create an administration schedule for the patient so that he can comply. Additionally, create a schedule of blood extraction tests handy, so the appropriate dosage can be determined.

As for side effects, inform the patient that these are normal:

  • Headache
  • Dizziness
  • Joint pain
  • Fatigue
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Diarrhea

The following, however, are warning signs that should be reported to the doctor or the nurse:

  • Difficulty of breathing
  • Tingling/numbness
  • Chest pain
  • Severe headache
  • Seizures

Knowing the following facts will definitely make you an effective nurse. Ensure your patient’s health and safety by studying the practice NCLEX questions at

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Know the Important Details of Oxytocin

Oxytocin Important Details

Obstetrics and Gynecology is considered difficult by many NCLEX takers. But since it is a major subject, questions about this field are sure to appear in your forthcoming test. Increase your chances of passing the exam by familiarizing yourself with one of Ob-Gyne’s most common medications: Oxytocin.


Indications for Use

Also known by the brand name Pitocin, it is a synthetic hormone similar to the substance produced by the hypothalamus. Oxytocin works by stimulating the uterus, as such it is used to jumpstart labor – and continue it along the way.

Apart from stimulating labor, Oxytocin is used to control post-partum bleeding. It is also indicated in the management of incomplete or inevitable abortion.

Pitocin also causes the contraction of lacteal glands. As such, it is used to improve milk secretion in breastfeeding mothers.

Nursing Considerations

While Oxytocin can help stimulate labor, an aspiring nurse like you should be mindful about assessing the patient receiving the said drug. History-taking is vital, as cephalopelvic disproportion, unfavorable fetal presentation/position, previous Caesarian section and toxemia are contraindications to the use of Pitocin.

As a nurse, it is also important to monitor the patient’s uterine contraction and uterine tone. Other aspects that should be included in the assessment are the patient’s vital signs, reflexes, breath sounds and urinary output. Lab tests such as CBC and coagulation studies should be evaluated in patients receiving Oxytocin as well.

NCLEX Nursing Interventions

Since Oxytocin works by stimulating the uterus, the nurse should be vigilant in monitoring uterine tone and uterine contraction. Maternal BP should be checked periodically as well. As a nurse, it is your responsibility to discontinue the drug and alert the physician if you notice signs of uterine spasm/hyperactivity or an impending hypertensive emergency (characterized by sudden headache, elevated BP and stiff neck, to name a few.)

Apart from the mother, the fetus (specifically his heart rate) should be monitored while the patient undergoes Oxytocin therapy. In case of rapid changes in FHT, the solution should be discontinued and the patient should be placed on her side to avoid fetal anoxia.

Oxytocin also has marked effects on the baby. After delivery, the nurse should check the neonate for the onset of jaundice or retinal hemorrhage.

Important NCLEX Teaching Points

Although patients on Oxytocin are usually in hospitals and can be monitored regularly, it is your duty as a nurse to inform the client about the actions and effects of Oxytocin.

Severe and sudden headache is an adverse side effect of Oxytocin. Instruct patient to report such onset to you or other healthcare providers, ASAP.


Ob-Gyne NCLEX questions might be hard, but you can ace them all simply by reviewing this study guide about Oxytocin. Learn more about other commonly asked drugs by going through the practice NCLEX questions at

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Lithium Carbonate: What You Need to Know

Lithium Carbonate Must-Knows

The NCLEX consists of four core topics, with Physiological Integrity as one of them. Under this section is ‘pharmacological and parenteral therapies,’ undoubtedly one of the hardest subjects in the exam.

As such, it is important that you familiarize yourself with the common medications found in the NCLEX, one of which is Lithium Carbonate. Here are some important facts you need to know about this drug: to get the Top Medications on NCLEX RN exam

Indication for Use

Lithium Carbonate is an anti-manic drug, used in the treatment of manic episodes in individuals with bipolar disorder. It is also used as a maintenance drug, in order to decrease the intensity and frequency of ensuing manic outbreaks.

Lithium Carbonate, also known by the names Eskalith, Eskalith CR, Lithobid, Lithonate and Lithotabs, works by inhibiting dopamine and norepinephrine release. Placed under Pregnancy Category D, this drug is known to cross the placenta and the milk ducts.

Lithium Toxicity

Nursing Considerations

As a nurse, you need to know that Lithium Carbonate interacts with a lot of drugs and supplements. Toxicity can occur if it is taken in conjunction with Thiazide diuretics such as Hydrochlorothiazide and Indapamide. CNS toxicity can also occur if it is taken with Carbamazepine.

Plasma Lithium Carbonate levels, on the other hand, can increase and become toxic if it taken in conjunction with NSAIDs (i.e. Ibuprofen and Meloxicam) and Indomethacin.

Prior to administering Lithium Carbonate, make sure to take the patient’s history. Note if the patient has a severe heart or kidney problem. Assess if the patient takes diuretics, or if he suffers from tartrazine hypersensitivity.

Also remember to monitor the patient’s vital signs, weight, orientation and affect prior to administering Lithium Carbonate. Check his fluid intake and output as well. Do not forget to evaluate the baseline results of the following exams: CBC, Urinalysis, ECG, Thyroid and Renal function tests.

Nursing Interventions

Because of this risk of toxicity associated with Lithium Carbonate, religiously check the serum levels of the patient, especially if he is dehydrated, debilitated, or diagnosed with heart or kidney diseases. Remember that the therapeutic level for this drug is 0.6 to 1.2 mEq/L.

The efficacy or toxicity of Lithium Carbonate depends on the patient’s salt and fluid intake. As such, instruct your client to maintain adequate salt and fluid intake, which is 2.5 to 3 liters per day.

Important Teaching Points

Nurses are patient educators, so you need to remind them of essential drug pointers, especially if they will be taking Lithium Carbonate at home.

Make sure to advise your patient to take Lithium Carbonate after meals with food or milk. Remind him about maintaining a normal salt and fluid intake for optimum effectiveness.

Inform your patient about the expected side effects of Lithium Carbonate, which are drowsiness, dizziness, GI upset, mild thirst, increased urine volume and fine hand tremor.

Most importantly, instruct your patient to coordinate with you or another healthcare provider if he experiences the signs of toxicity, which include tremor, vomiting, diarrhea, drowsiness, muscular weakness and lack of coordination.


Lithium is just one of the many medications you can expect in your forthcoming NCLEX exam. Master this drug – among many others – at’s practice NCLEX questions.

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