Be a NCLEX Wizard with this Atropine Study Guide

Atropine Study Guide

NCLEX is not an easy exam, yet you can pass it with flying colors. More than just browsing through the major topics such as Medical and Surgical nursing, you need to be well-versed with the commonly-used medications in hospitals, hospices and healthcare centers.

One such example is Atropine Sulfate, a parasympatholytic agent. Also an anti-cholinergic and an anti-muscarinic medication, it is a medication that you might encounter in your forthcoming NCLEX exam. to get the Top Medications on NCLEX RN exam

Parkinson's diseaseIndications for Use

Atropine is a multi-faceted drug known by the brands Atropisol and Isopto Atropine. Apart from the aforementioned uses, this Belladonna Alkaloid is also used as an antidote, an anti-parkinsonian, and a diagnostic agent.

Because of its numerous purposes, Atropine is prescribed for a variety of disorders. It is utilized in the treatment of Parkinson’s-related rigidity and tremor, closed head disorders, pylorospasm, colon hypermotility, biliary spasm, ureteral colic, bronchospasm, urinary tract disorders and peptic ulcer, to name a few.

As an antidote, Atropine is used to reverse mushroom poisoning and cardiovascular collapse secondary to parasympathomimetic drug overdose.

Nursing Considerations

Before giving Tegretol, the nurse should take the patient’s complete history. You should determine the presence of hypersensitivity, glaucoma, gastrointestinal disorders, arrhythmia, COPD, bronchial asthma, myasthenia gravis, brain damage, hypertension and hypothyroidism, among many others.

For physical assessment, you should check the patient’s vital signs, as well as lung sounds, urinary output and bowel sounds. Make sure to assess the client’s affect, orientation, reflexes, skin color/lesions and bilateral hand grip strength as well.

As for lab exams, the nurse should periodically check the results of the patient’s liver/kidney function tests and ECG.

NCLEX Nursing Interventions

Hyperpyrexia can occur with Atropine therapy. As a nurse, it is your responsibility to provide temperature control to circumvent this. Ensuring adequate hydration can also curb the onset of hyperpyrexia.

Urinary retention usually occurs with Atropine, therefore advise the patient to empty his bladder prior to the provision of the drug.

Important NCLEX Teaching Points

As a nurse, make sure to teach your client about what he can expect with regards to taking Atropine. For example, you should advise him to take the medication 30 minutes prior to a meal, in order to avoid overdosage.

As it has been established, hyperpyrexia can occur with Atropine. As such, remind your client to avoid hot environments as the drug might cause heat intolerance.

Educate your patient with the usual side effects of Atropine, which are confusion, dizziness, constipation, blurred vision, dry mouth, light sensitivity, urination difficulties and impotence (reversible.)

Most importantly, teach your client about warning signs – the presence of any should warrant immediate notification. These symptoms are hallucinations, abdominal distention, coordination loss, tremors, irregular heartbeat, eye pain, flushing, rashes, headache and swallowing/urinating difficulties.

Atropine might have many purposes, but you can conquer them all (and other difficult drugs as well) with the help of practice NCLEX questions.

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Score High in Your NCLEX: MAOI Inhibitors Must-Knows

MAOI Inhibitors Must-Knows

According to studies, depression affects more than 120 million individuals around the world. This mental disorder, unfortunately, disturbs one’s quality of life, relationships and social skills. Worst of all, it has led to approximately 850,000 cases of suicide worldwide.

Because of the prevalence of this disease, it is your responsibility as a nurse to familiarize yourself – as well as your clients – with anti-depressant medications, such as MAOI Inhibitors. to get the Top Medications on NCLEX RN exam

Signs of Depression

Indications for Use

MAOI inhibitors are anti-depressants that affect neurotransmitters that serve as linkages between neurons. It addresses depression symptoms by altering the levels of such brain chemicals.

MAOI inhibitors prevent the synthesis of monoamine oxidase, which eliminates dopamine, serotonin and epinephrine from the brain. With higher levels of the aforementioned neurotransmitters, enhanced mood is experienced.

Examples of MAOI inhibitors are Phenelzine (Nardil), Selegilin (Emsam), Isocarboxazid (Marplan) and Tranylcypromine (Parnate.)

Nursing Considerations

Before administering MAOI inhibitors, the nurse should take the history of the patient. Pertinent information that should be noted are hypersensitivity to MAOI inhibitors, seizure disorders and cerebrovascular defects. Disorders such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension and hyperthyroidism should be documented as well.

As for physical examination, the nurse should obtain the client’s vital signs, reflexes, affect, orientation and urine output. Skin color and the presence of skin lesions should be checked as well. Laboratory tests that should be obtained include CBC, urinalysis, thyroid function tests, ECG and EEG.

NCLEX Nursing Interventions

The most important nursing intervention for patients taking MAOI inhibitors is to ensure that they limit the intake of tyramine-rich foods. Tyramine, whose breakdown is impeded by MAOI inhibitors, can lead to a hypertensive crisis. Symptoms include elevated BP and severe headache. At the sign of this, immediately discontinue the drug and inform the doctor.

Consequently, make sure to control the patient’s intake of cheese, alcohol, banana, liver and fermented/smoked food products. In anticipation of a hypertensive crisis, keep alpha-adrenergic blocking drugs and phentolamine at bay.

Apart from the symptoms of hypertensive crisis, MAOI inhibitors should also be discontinued at the first sign of hepatic dysfunction (jaundice.)

Important NCLEX Teaching Points

Nurses are health educators, so when teaching patients taking MAOI inhibitors, remind them to take the drug as prescribed.  Advise them not to discontinue use abruptly.

As it has been emphasized, instruct your patients to avoid tyramine-rich foods while taking MAOI inhibitors, up to 2 weeks after therapy. Alcohol, appetite suppressants and over-the-counter drugs should be averted as well.

Additionally, make sure to educate your patients about the expected side effects of MAOI inhibitors, which are:

  • Dizziness
  • Weakness/fainting resulting from an abrupt positional change
  • Drowsiness
  • Blurred vision (reversible)
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Loss of appetite
  • Emotional or mental changes
  • Irritability/ nervousness

Patients should be informed about the warning signs that warrant immediate physician/nurse attention as well. They include:

  • Headache
  • Rashes
  • Darkened urine
  • Pale stools
  • Eye/skin yellowing
  • Chills and fever
  • Sore throat

Your patient’s recovery depends on your knowledge, skills and passion as a nurse. Enhance your mind and become an excellent nurse with the practice NCLEX questions at

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Vitamin K – Pass the NCLEX on your First Time by Mastering this Drug

Master Vitamin K

Vitamins are essential for everybody’s health. So if you are an aspiring nurse, you definitely have to master these vital substances.

Now that you are about to take your NCLEX, remember that you need to be familiar with the common drugs, such as Vitamin K. Often found in NCLEX tests, you can memorize its important points by reading through the rest of this article. to get the Top Medications on NCLEX RN exam

Indications for Use

Also known as Phytomenadione, Vitamin K is a medication that works similar to the natural vitamin found in green leafy vegetables and fish. It is needed for the synthesis of clotting factors that prevent excessive bleeding.

Vitamin K is prescribed in patients who suffer from an overdose of oral anti-coagulants, such as Coumadin and Inandione. It is also used in individuals who suffer from hypoprothrombinemia resulting from the intake of oral antibiotics and Vitamin A.

Those with disorders resulting to the malabsorption and inadequacy of Vitamin K, such as ulcerative colitis and obstructive jaundice, are also treated with the said drug.

Vitamin K is also an essential medication for newborns, as it is used in the treatment of neonatal hemorrhagic disease.

Vitamin K FoodsNursing Considerations

As a nurse, you are responsible for monitoring the patient who will receive Vitamin K. You should take a comprehensive history, specifically noting if he has allergies. For female patients, establish if they are pregnant, planning to be pregnant or lactating, as it can cause jaundice and other conditions to the fetus/neonate.

Since Vitamin K helps in the synthesis of clotting factors, you should check the patient’s PT and INR tests every so often.

NCLEX Nursing Interventions

As it has been established, you should religiously monitor your patient’s PT/INR response. After all, the result will dictate the duration, frequency and dose of Vitamin K.

The effectiveness of the drug is evidenced by the following responses:

  • Shortened PT/INR, bleeding and clotting times
  • Decreased bleeding tendencies

Important NCLEX Teaching Points

When dealing with patients taking Vitamin K, it is vital to remind them to maintain a normal diet. Remind them to avoid increasing the intake of Vitamin K-rich foods (i.e. green leafy vegetables, fish, meat and eggs,) especially if the treatment regimen has already been stabilized.

It is also important to inform patients taking Vitamin K that they might develop temporary resistance to anticoagulants similar to Coumadin. Should this oral medication be needed, a larger dose – or heparin even – might be prescribed instead.

Vitamin K is an essential drug, commonly seen in many hospital floors. Boost your nursing knowledge and obtain that most-awaited license by going through the practice NCLEX questions here at

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Superb NCLEX Study Tips

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Ace the NCLEX:  Superb

NCLEX Study Tips

NCLEX study tips are the best way for nurses to study for NCLEX.  Congratulations! Your years of studying have finally paid off.  Graduating from Nursing school is just the start of your journey. Before you can practice your skills and live out your dream of becoming an efficient nurse, you first need to pass the National Council Licensure Examinations for Registered Nurses, also known as NCLEX-RN.  We provide NCLEX Study tips to help you pass the exam on your 1st try.

The NCLEX, which is administered in a computerized adaptive testing format, provides the aspiring nurse with 75 to 265 exam questions. Our NCLEX Study tips will help you pass the exam.  The test ends when the system determines the capacity of the exam taker (below or above standard.)

Of course, you want your results to be above standard, don’t you? So how do you go about with this make-or-break event in your life? Here are superb NCLEX Study tips that can help you ace your NCLEX in as little as 75 questions!

Get more NCLEX Study Tips in our mobile app

NCLEX Study tip 1.

Go over as many NCLEX study tips and questions as you possibly can. has a mobile application and website that provides study questions that will help you pass the NCLEX exam on the 1st try.

NCLEX Study tip 2.

Draft an effective study plan.  According to the article “6 tips on preparing for the NCLEX-RN exam” by Judy Draper, MSN and Alice Stein, RN, EdD, you should schedule your examination right away, while the information in your mind is still fresh. Once the schedule is put into place, you can calculate how many days you have left for reviewing.

Divide your study materials equally so that you can cover all the bases for the remaining days. Choose the best time where you can function well – is

NCLEX Study Tips
NCLEX Study Tips

it morning, or before sleeping?

Now that you have created a study schedule, make sure to stick with it. Go over your class notes, books and test reviewers as you have planned to. Devote additional study times to areas where you are weak at.

NCLEX Study tip 3.

Familiarize yourself with the test plan categories.

The practice of Nursing is broad; so it will help if you know the categories and types of questions that can appear in the NCLEX. Here is the breakdown of the topics you can expect from the exam:

  • Basic Care and Comfort
  • Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies
  • Reduction of Risk Potential
  • Physiological Adaptation
  • Management of Care
  • Safety and Infection Control
  • Psychosocial Adaptation
  • Coping and Adaptation
  • Prevention and Early Detection of Disease
  • Growth and Development Through the Lifespan

NCLEX Study tip 4.

Review for the exam with a study group.  You might find it hard to study on your own, especially if you have your TV and your laptop to distract you. In this case, you need to participate in a study group. Here, you can gain support and motivation from colleagues (God knows I got mine from my peer group!) You can even share your study materials and ask each other about possible NCLEX-RN questions, such as this one: Antepartum

A new mother has some questions about (PKU). Which of the following statements made by a nurse is not correct regarding PKU?

A: A Guthrie test can check the necessary lab values.
B: The urine has a high concentration of phenylpyruvic acid
C: Mental deficits are often present with PKU.
D: The effects of PKU are reversible.

5.  Be prepared on the test date itself.  Cramming will do you no good, especially the day before the exam. Sleep early so you can be well-rested on the exam date itself. Arrive at the test facility earlier than expected, especially if you are not familiar with the area. Be sure to have all the necessary documents with you – your test authorization form and two valid IDs.

Studying well is important for you to pass the NCLEX – and it is just as vital to be mentally prepared as well. With a well-stocked brain and a positive outlook in life, you can become the nurse you have always wanted to be! You can find other test questions and NCLEX study tips at

Do you have other study tips for NCLEX takers? Don’t hesitate to share them here!Join Our Private NCLEX Group


Author: Raychel Ria Agramon

Epogen Pointers: What You Need to Become an Excellent Nurse

Epogen Pointers for Excellent Nursing

Anemia is a condition characterized by the inadequacy of red blood cells, components that deliver oxygen to various parts of the body. This disorder is hallmarked by symptoms such as fatigue, dizziness, shortness of breath, tachycardia and pallor.

To cure this illness, doctors usually prescribe Epogen. As such, this medication is commonly found in the NCLEX.

Indications for Use

Generically known as Epoietin Alfa, Epogen is categorized as a recombinant human erythropoietin. It boosts the production of glycoproteins in the kidneys, which then increases the synthesis of red blood cells in the bone marrow.

Epogen is prescribed in patients with anemia related to the following:

  • Chronic renal failure, especially those on dialysis
  • Renal failure in ages 1-16 years old, requiring dialysis
  • Zidovudine therapy for HIV-AIDS
  • Chemotherapy

Apart from anemia treatment, Epogen is also used to reduce allogenic blood transfusions in patients undergoing surgery. Other indications included pruritus secondary to renal failure, myelodysplastic syndrome and chronic inflammation due to rheumatoid arthritis.

symptoms of anemiaNursing Considerations

Assessment is an integral part of Epogen therapy. As such, make sure to take the patient’s history and note for hypersensitivity to mammalian cell-derived products/human albumin, uncontrolled hypertension and lactation.

As for physical examination, obtain pertinent information such as the patient’s vital signs, affect, reflexes and urinary output prior to administration. Ensure that lab exams such as CBC, Hematocrit, Serum iron, electrolytes and renal function tests are extracted accordingly.

NCLEX Nursing Interventions

When preparing Epogen, remember to gently mix the solution. Do not shake the vial, as it might denature the glycoprotein. Additionally, use only one dose per vial and avoid re-entering it. Discard the vial after use, even if there is still something remaining in the container.

Avoid giving Epogen with any other drug or medication.

Epogen should be administered thrice weekly. Intravenous or subcutaneous are the preferred routes, though it can be given directly to the venous access line of dialysis patients. Prior and after administration, evaluate the access line for signs of clotting.

Make sure that the patient’s Hematocrit is checked prior to Epogen therapy. This will determine the accurate dosage for the client. Additionally, check the patient’s serum iron to evaluate if supplemental iron is needed.

Remember to place patients receiving Epogen on seizure precaution, as it can occur with the drug.

Important NCLEX Teaching Points

As Epogen needs to be given three times a week, create an administration schedule for the patient so that he can comply. Additionally, create a schedule of blood extraction tests handy, so the appropriate dosage can be determined.

As for side effects, inform the patient that these are normal:

  • Headache
  • Dizziness
  • Joint pain
  • Fatigue
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Diarrhea

The following, however, are warning signs that should be reported to the doctor or the nurse:

  • Difficulty of breathing
  • Tingling/numbness
  • Chest pain
  • Severe headache
  • Seizures

Knowing the following facts will definitely make you an effective nurse. Ensure your patient’s health and safety by studying the practice NCLEX questions at

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